Citra . Laoli, Rahmad . Husein, Anna Riana Suryanti Tambunan


The objective of this study was to describe the ways the modality was realized in teacher-to-teacher talk of forced online learning. The data of this study were sentences expressing modality uttered by teachers while they were talking about forced online learning. Participant observation technique was performed to collect the data. Based on the data analysis conducted it was found that modality was realized through modal operators (47%), modal adjuncts (27%), interpersonal metaphors (16%), and predicator constituents (10%). The use of modal operators which was mostly found in realizing the modality indicates that the teachers tend to talk and think about states of affairs that are not present in the current situation and may never occur in the natural world. Moreover, there are some combinations of the realizations realized, namely: modal adjuncts and interpersonal metaphors; modal operators and predicator constituents; modal operators and modal adjuncts; interpersonal metaphors and predicator constituents; modal operators and interpersonal metaphors; modal operators, modal adjuncts, and interpersonal metaphors; and modal operators, interpersonal metaphors, and predicator constituents. It shows that teachers use some ways to assert or deny and to prescribe or proscribe when they express their judgments on forced online learning especially in informal situations.


Modality, Teacher-to-Teacher Talk, Online Learning

Full Text:



Azhari, B., and I. Fajri. (2021). Distance Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic: School Closure in Indonesia. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science, 1-21.

Dhawan, S. (2020). Online Learning: A Panacea in the Time of COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(1), 1–18.

Halliday, M. A., and C. M.Matthiessen. (2014). Halliday’s Introduction to Functional. Oxon: Routledge.

Kosko, K. W., and P. Herbst (2012). A Deeper Look at How Teachers Say What They Say: A Quantitative Modality Analysis of Teacher-to-Teacher Talk. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(4), 589-598.

Kruszewska, A., S. Nazaruk, and K.Szewczyk. (2020). Polish Teachers of Early Education in the Face of Distance Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Education 3-13, 1-12.

Little, S. G., and A.A Little. (2008). Psychology’s Contributions to Classroom Management. Psychology in the Schools, 45(3), 227-234.

Rui, Z., and L.Jingxia. (2018). The Study on the Interpersonal Meanings of Modality in Micro-blogging English News Discourse by the case of “Donald Trump’s Muslim Entry Ban”. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 9(2), 110-118.

Shin, D. S. (2020). Introduction: TESOL and the COVID-19 Pandemic. TESOL Journal, 11(3), 1-3.

Singh, V., andA. Thurman. (2019). How Many Ways Can We Define Online Learning? A Systematic Literature Review of Definitions of Online Learning (1988-2018). American Journal of Distance Education, 33(4), 289-306.

Truzoli, R., V. Pirola, and S.Conte. (2021). The Impact of Risk and Protective Factors on Online Teaching Experience in High School Italian Teachers during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 37(4), 1–13.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 30 times
PDF - 13 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Citra . Laoli, Rahmad . Husein, Anna Riana Suryanti Tambunan